Medical Intelligence from The New England Journal of Medicine — VI. Hyperkalemia. Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition in which serum potassium exceeds mmol/l. It can be caused by reduced renal excretion, excessive. n engl j med ;3 january 15, mmol per liter.1,2 Hyperkalemia is defined as erate hyperkalemia) and more than mmol per.

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In hemodialysis patients with hyperkalemia it has only a moderate effect if given as prolonged infusion [ 35 ]. In children hyperkaalemia severe hyperkalemia and major ECG abnormalities, conservative efforts should be initiated immediately to stabilize the patient, but management should include rapid facilitation of renal replacement treatment.

Curr Opin Nemj Hypertens. Onset within h, lasting h. Test is most useful in distinguishing patients who have mineralocorticoid deficiency versus resistance by observing a change in TTKG values after administration of mineralocorticoid: Correction of factitious hyperkalemia in hemolyzed specimens.

Retrospective review of the frequency of ECG changes in hyperkalemia. Life-threatening hyperkalemia and hyperkaoemia secondary to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole treatment. Absorption of potassium from the gastrointestinal tract is rapid and usually complete.


Aldosterone as key regulator of renal potassium homeostasis binds to the nuclear mineralocorticoid receptor MR within the distal tubule and the principal cells in the CCD. Abstract Hyperkalemia is a hyperkalemja life-threatening condition in which serum potassium exceeds 5.

This results from leakage of potassium from the intracellular space during or after blood sampling.

Hyperkalemia can be classified according to serum potassium into mild 5. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. Please review our privacy policy.

An inappropriately low TTKG in a hyperkalemic patient suggests hypoaldosteronism or a renal tubule defect [ 39 ]. This article reviews the pathomechanisms leading to hyperkalemic states, its symptoms, and different treatment options. Pseudohypoaldosteronism PHA refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders of electrolyte metabolism characterized by hyperkalemia, metabolic acidosis, and normal GRF [ 18 ]. Hyperkalemic distal renal tubular acidosis associated with hyperkaalemia uropathy.

Diagnosis of hyperkalemia Hyperkalemia can be classified according to serum potassium into mild 5. In anuric patients, treatment of hyperkalemia should include diuretics. Addison or secondary e. Published online Dec Acid-base balance can affect the balance between cellular and extracellular potassium concentration.


Hypoaldosteronism may either be primary e. It modulates excretion of not only potassium but also calcium and magnesium.

Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Impaired elimination of potassium Renal insufficiency acute or chronic: Potassium is filtered in the glomerulus and almost completely reabsorbed in the proximal hyperkzlemia and the loop of Henle.

Examination and investigations should be systematic and always include assessment of cardiac function, kidneys, and urinary tract as well as hydration status njem neurological evaluation. Diarrhea if preparations come premixed with sorbitol p.

Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of hyperkalemia

J Am Coll Nutr. Morphologic alterations in the rat medullary collecting duct following potassium depletion.

Depending on diet, the normal daily intake can vary. Palmer LG, Frindt G.